Traffic reporting apps like Waze are a new form of community-based networks. Each day, thousands of drivers use apps like Waze, Google Maps, Apple Maps, and other mobile phone applications to report on traffic conditions. Apps like these, I believe, can and will be interconnected to form a large ad hoc transportation network that can be enabled into smart cars and smart roads. Just imagine the applications that can be developed once the roads have more smart and self driving vehicles. Even now, there are a lot of cars on the road that have cameras for assist driving, once self driving vehicles hit the road in large numbers, those cameras can networked together and used to analyze license plates to look for stolen cars, automatically report pot holes, and even police/monitor other vehicles.